Circulating GDF-11 (Growth differentiation factor 11) levels decline during aging. GDF-11 is a member of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) family. It binds to the TGF-β receptors ALK4, ALK5, and ALK7 and activates the SMAD signaling pathway (Ho et al.). GDF-11 regulates the development of the olfactory system, retina, and pancreas, as well as anterior/posterior patterning of the axial skeleton (Lee & Lee). GDF-11 is an endocrine factor expressed in skeletal muscle, brain, and dental pulp (Kondás et al.). Studies in mice showed that GDF-11 regulates muscle and cardiac aging, and stimulates neurogenesis by remodeling blood vessels (Katsimpardi et al.; Loffredo et al.; Sinha et al.).
For Research Use Only
GDF 11 is only bio-available via injection. A ug (a microgram) is a very small mass (1 millionth of a gram), and the vial will appear nearly empty with only 5 units of clear liquid in the bottom. This material should be kept as cold as possible, but avoid freeze-thaw cycles. We ship it with two frozen gel packs, but depending on weather etc, these only last about 2 days. We recommend and have next day courier shipping available with an extra cost of $35 to most locations(we will email about upgraded shipping after an order is received). We do not advise on dosages or use of this product. This substance is not sold for human use. Peptides and proteins are non-returnable.