Circulating Klotho levels decline during aging. In humans, Klotho deficiency features medial calcification, intima hyperplasia, endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffening, hypertension, impaired angiogenesis, and vasculogenesis (i.e., characteristics of early vascular aging). Several studies have suggested that pharmaceutical replacement of Klotho can improve complications associated with CKD. Pre-clinical studies have indicated that administration of soluble Klotho can reduce renal fibrosis, VC, and EMT. Administration of soluble Klotho has proven a safe and effective treatment for kidney injury and preservation of renal function in early clinical studies.
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